MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are implicated in various biological processes. Hsa-miR-6165 (miR-6165), located in the p75NTR gene, is known to induce apoptosis in human cell lines, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood yet. Here, we predicted the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) gene as a bona fide target for miR-6165. The overexpression of miR-6165 in SW480 cells resulted in significant downregulation of IGF-1R expression as detected by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, it resulted in reduced transcript levels of AKT2, AKT3, PI3KR3, PI3KR5, CCND1, c-MYC and P21 genes detected by RT-qPCR analysis. In addition, a direct interaction between miR-6165 and a 3′UTR sequence of the IGF-1R gene was verified through a dual luciferase assay. Furthermore, miR-6165 and IGF-1R showed opposite patterns of expression during the neural differentiation process of NT2 cells. Annexin V analysis and MTT assay showed that miR-6165 overexpression was followed by increased apoptosis and reduced the viability rate of SW480 cells. Moreover, a lower expression level of miR-6165 was detected in high-grade colorectal tumors compared with low-grade tumors. Taken together, the results of our study suggest a tumor suppressive role of miR-6165 in colorectal cancer, which seems to take place by regulating IGF-1R gene expression.