Cancer metastasis is a major cause of death among women afflicted with breast cancer (BC) and understanding the molecular processes involved is a major focus in BC research. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as genomic regulatory molecules in carcinogenesis and metastasis; however, their role in BC is unclear. We characterized a novel circRNA, hsa_circ_0000515, in context of BC. We collected 340 cancerous tissues surgically resected from BC patients and found hsa_circ_0000515 was upregulated in BC tissues and associated with poor prognosis of BC. Silencing of hsa_circ_0000515 impaired cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and invasion, attenuated inflammatory response, and reduced the proangiogenetic potential of BC cells. RNA pull-down and dual-luciferase reporter gene assays showed that hsa_circ_0000515 binds miR-296-5p, preventing it from repressing CXCL10 expression. We also observed that miR-296-5p inhibition or CXCL10 overexpression promoted cell cycle progression, restored proliferative, invasive and proangiogenetic abilities, and increased inflammatory response in MCF-7 cells in the absence of hsa_circ_0000515. In vivo analyses showed that partial loss of hsa_circ_0000515 reduced the tumor growth of MCF-7 cells in nude mice. The key findings from this study revealed that targeting hsa_circ_0000515 might be an effective strategy to combat BC. © 2020 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.