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How Messenger RNA and Nascent Chain Sequences Regulate Translation Elongation

Authors
  • Choi, Junhong
  • Grosely, Rosslyn
  • Prabhakar, Arjun
  • Lapointe, Christopher P.
  • Wang, Jinfan
  • Puglisi, Joseph D.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Annual Review of Biochemistry
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
Jun 20, 2018
Volume
87
Pages
421–449
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-060815-014818
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
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Abstract

Translation elongation is a highly coordinated, multistep, multifactor process that ensures accurate and efficient addition of amino acids to a growing nascent-peptide chain encoded in the sequence of translated messenger RNA (mRNA). Although translation elongation is heavily regulated by external factors, there is clear evidence that mRNA and nascent-peptide sequences control elongation dynamics, determining both the sequence and structure of synthesized proteins. Advances in methods have driven experiments that revealed the basic mechanisms of elongation as well as the mechanisms of regulation by mRNA and nascent-peptide sequences. In this review, we highlight how mRNA and nascent-peptide elements manipulate the translation machinery to alter the dynamics and pathway of elongation.

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