Lactococcus garvieae is the aetiological agent of lactococcosis, a haemorrhagic septicaemia that affects marine and freshwater fish, with special incidence and economic relevance in farmed rainbow trout. Water temperature is one of the most important predisposing factors in the development of lactococcosis outbreaks. Lactococcosis in trout usually occur when water temperatures rise to about 18 °C, while fish carriers remain asymptomatic at temperatures below 13 °C. The aim of this work was to analyse the differences in the complete transcriptome response of L. garvieae grown at 18 °C and at 13 °C and to identify the immunogenic proteins expressed by this bacterium at 18 °C. Our results show that water temperature influences the expression of L. garvieae genes involved in the lysis of part of the bacterial cell population and in the cold response bacterial adaptation. Moreover, the surface immunogenic protein profile at 18 °C suggests an important role of the lysozyme-like enzyme, WxL surface proteins and some putative moonlighting proteins (proteins with more than one function, usually associated with different cellular locations) as virulence factors in L. garvieae. The results of this study could provide insights into the understanding of the virulence mechanisms of L. garvieae in fish.