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How could metabolomics change pediatric health?

Authors
  • Bardanzellu, Flaminia1
  • Fanos, Vassilios1
  • 1 AOU University of Cagliari, SS 554 km 4,500, Monserrato, CA, 09042, Italy , Monserrato (Italy)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Mar 27, 2020
Volume
46
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s13052-020-0807-7
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

In the last years, ‘omics’ technologies, and especially metabolomics, emerged as expanding scientific disciplines and promising technologies in the characterization of several pathophysiological processes. In detail, metabolomics, able to detect in a dynamic way the whole set of molecules of low molecular weight in cells, tissues, organs, and biological fluids, can provide a detailed phenotypic portray, representing a metabolic “snapshot.” Thanks to its numerous strength points, metabolomics could become a fundamental tool in human health, allowing the exact evaluation of individual metabolic responses to pathophysiological stimuli including drugs, environmental changes, lifestyle, a great number of diseases and other epigenetics factors. Moreover, if current metabolomics data will be confirmed on larger samples, such technology could become useful in the early diagnosis of diseases, maybe even before the clinical onset, allowing a clinical monitoring of disease progression and helping in performing the best therapeutic approach, potentially predicting the therapy response and avoiding overtreatments. Moreover, the application of metabolomics in nutrition could provide significant information on the best nutrition regimen, optimal infantile growth and even in the characterization and improvement of commercial products’ composition. These are only some of the fields in which metabolomics was applied, in the perspective of a precision-based, personalized care of human health. In this review, we discuss the available literature on such topic and provide some evidence regarding clinical application of metabolomics in heart diseases, auditory disturbance, nephrouropathies, adult and pediatric cancer, obstetrics, perinatal conditions like asphyxia, neonatal nutrition, neonatal sepsis and even some neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism. Our research group has been interested in metabolomics since several years, performing a wide spectrum of experimental and clinical studies, including the first metabolomics analysis of human breast milk. In the future, it is reasonable to predict that the current knowledge could be applied in daily clinical practice, and that sensible metabolomics biomarkers could be easily detected through cheap and accurate sticks, evaluating biofluids at the patient’s bed, improving diagnosis, management and prognosis of sick patients and allowing a personalized medicine. A dream? May be I am a dreamer, but I am not the only one.

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