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Host-pathogen interaction in COVID-19: Pathogenesis, potential therapeutics and vaccination strategies

Authors
  • Varghese, Praveen Mathews1, 2
  • Tsolaki, Anthony G.1
  • Yasmin, Hadida3
  • Shastri, Abhishek4
  • Ferluga, Janez1
  • Vatish, Manu5
  • Madan, Taruna6
  • Kishore, Uday1
  • 1 Biosciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, London, United Kingdom
  • 2 School of Biosciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India
  • 3 Immunology and Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Cooch Behar Panchanan Barma University, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India
  • 4 Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
  • 5 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Women's Centre, John Radcliffe Oxford University Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
  • 6 Department of Innate Immunity, ICMR - National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, J.M. Street, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Type
Published Article
Journal
Immunobiology
Publisher
Elsevier GmbH.
Publication Date
Aug 19, 2020
Volume
225
Issue
6
Pages
152008–152008
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.imbio.2020.152008
PMID: 33130519
PMCID: PMC7434692
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Unknown

Abstract

The current coronavirus pandemic, COVID-19, is the third outbreak of disease caused by the coronavirus family, after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. It is an acute infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This severe disease is characterised by acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulation dysfunction, and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. Currently, no drugs or vaccines exist against the disease and the only course of treatment is symptom management involving mechanical ventilation, immune suppressants, and repurposed drugs. The severe form of the disease has a relatively high mortality rate. The last six months have seen an explosion of information related to the host receptors, virus transmission, virus structure-function relationships, pathophysiology, co-morbidities, immune response, treatment and the most promising vaccines. This review takes a critically comprehensive look at various aspects of the host-pathogen interaction in COVID-19. We examine the genomic aspects of SARS-CoV-2, modulation of innate and adaptive immunity, complement-triggered microangiopathy, and host transmission modalities. We also examine its pathophysiological impact during pregnancy, in addition to emphasizing various gaps in our knowledge. The lessons learnt from various clinical trials involving repurposed drugs have been summarised. We also highlight the rationale and likely success of the most promising vaccine candidates.

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