Infection of certain strains of mice with the ecotropic Friend murine leukemia virus results in the generation of recombinant polytropic mink cell focus-inducing viruses and the development of erythroleukemia. We isolated a Friend mink cell focus-inducing virus (F-MCF-98D) from a Friend murine leukemia virus-infected BALB/c mouse which caused primarily a neurological disease as well as a low incidence of leukemia in susceptible IRW mice. Through genetic studies with the resistant C57BL/10 strain, we identified two genes which correlated with restricted viral replication and resistance to the development of disease caused by F-MCF-98D. One gene correlated with the expression of an endogenous gp70 linked to the Rmcf gene and might act by viral interference. The mechanism of action of the second gene was less clear, but it appeared to be associated with development of an antiviral antibody response.