BackgroundThe prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing globally, and the disease is frequently managed surgically. The aim of this study was to investigate the time trends and geographic distribution of IBD hospitalizations, surgeries and surgical-associated lethality.MethodsData from the Brazilian Health Public System were retrospectively collected regarding hospitalizations, in-hospital deaths, IBD-related surgical procedures and lethality from 2005 to 2015.ResultsThis eleven-year period revealed decreases in the rates of hospitalization (24%), IBD-related surgeries (35%), and IBD-related surgical lethality (46%). Most surgeries were performed in Crohn’s disease patients, and the predominant procedure was small bowel resection, mostly in young adults. A higher prevalence of ulcerative was observed throughout the country. The highest hospitalization and surgical rates were observed in the more industrialized regions of the South and the Southeast and in the municipalities integrated with metropolitan regions (MRs). The highest surgical-related lethality rates were seen in the less-developed regions and in municipalities not integrated with MRs. The length of hospital stay showed a slight increase throughout the period.ConclusionsBrazil follows the global trend of decreases in hospitalizations, lethality, surgeries, and surgical lethality associated with IBD. The unequal distribution of hospitalizations and surgeries, concentrated in the industrialized areas, but with a shift towards the Northeast and from urbanized to rural areas, indicates ongoing changes within the country. Reductions in the rates of IBD-related hospitalizations, surgeries and lethality suggest the effectiveness of decentralization and improvements in the quality of public health services and the advances in medical therapy during the study period.