Single afferent and efferent neurones in the guinea pig spiral ganglion were injected with horseradish peroxidase. They could be recovered in subsequent histological processing and traced from the injection site in the ganglion to their final termination in the organ of Corti. All responsive primary afferents innervated the inner hair cells (58 neurones). One outer spiral fibre innervating the outer hair cells was recovered. This cell was non-spiking and unresponsive to acoustic stimulation. Neurones having properties previously attributed to cochlear efferents, terminated on the outer hair cells in regions of the cochlea consistent with their characteristic frequencies.