In order to detect a possible HLA linked genetic control of human immune responses to hepatitis B virus, forty healthy adult persons of the same age typed for HLA-A, -B and -DR antigens, were vaccinated against virus hepatitis B and sequentially tested for anti-HBs and anti-pre-S2 antibodies. They received three injections of Hevac-B Pasteur vaccine, the second 1 month and the third 3 months after the first. Following the third immunization, 38 individuals (95%) had a protective level of anti-HBs antibodies and 17 (42.3%) had a positive level of anti-pre-S2 antibodies. HLA-A11 antigen was significantly more frequent (pc = 0.007) among anti-HBs high responders than low responders. In addition, anti-HBs high responders were more frequently HLA-DR1, and less frequently HLA-DR4 and DR7 positive; corrected values, however, were not significant. Anti-pre-S2 high responders showed an apparent increase of HLA-B7, B14 or DR3 antigens, when compared to low responders (pc not significant).