Orthopedic surgeons are at risk of acquiring HIV. Multi-center studies have estimated the risk of infection related with exposure to blood and other body fluids. New discussion concerning mandatory testing of patients who require invasive procedures has arisen as several reports on occupationally acquired HIV infections have been published. The case of the French surgeon highlighted the high risk of infection by blood-born pathogens related to certain surgical techniques. Cases of patients infected by HIV by medical personnel (by an American dentist and the mentioned before French surgeon) are also discussed. Basing on these two cases, the procedures with the highest infection risk are discussed, along with HIV testing policies towards surgeons of health care authorities in different countries. The importance of preventive measures, considering no cure for HIV infections is available is also stressed.