Antiretroviral therapy has led to a substantial increase in the life expectancy and quality of life for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Increasingly, physicians are asked to counsel them before international travel to regions in which infectious diseases are more prevalent. The pretravel evaluation requires an accurate assessment of the patient's level of immune compromise as well as an understanding of the risks involved in travel to tropical countries. We review the safety and efficacy of travel medicine-related vaccines, important considerations when selecting antimalarial prophylaxis, and strategies for management of traveler's diarrhea. The prevention of sexually transmitted infections while abroad also is an important public health intervention for both the traveler and the potential sexual partners abroad. Beyond the health-related issues in international travel, HIV-positive patients may confront some significant legal hurdles in crossing international borders. We provide guidance in navigating the diverse and complex issues that arise for the HIV-positive traveler.