The age of the HIV-infected population is increasing. Although many studies document gray matter volume (GMV) changes following HIV infection, GMV also declines with age. Findings have been inconsistent concerning interactions between HIV infection and age on brain structure. Effects of age, substance use, and inadequate viral suppression may confound identification of GMV serostatus effects using quantitative structural measures. In a cross-sectional study of HIV infection, including 97 seropositive and 84 seronegative, demographically matched participants, ages 30-70, we examined serostatus and age effects on GMV and neuropsychological measures. Ninety-eight percent of seropositive participants were currently treated with anti-retroviral therapies and all were virally suppressed. Gray, white, and CSF volumes were estimated using high-resolution T1-weighted MRI. Linear regression modeled effects of serostatus, age, education, comorbidities, and magnetic field strength on brain structure, using both a priori regions and voxel-based morphometry. Although seropositive participants exhibited significant bilateral decreases in striatal GMV, no serostatus effects were detected in the thalamus, hippocampus, or cerebellum. Age was associated with cortical, striatal, thalamic, hippocampal, and cerebellar GMV reductions. Effects of age and serostatus on striatal GMV were additive. Although no main effects of serostatus on neuropsychological performance were observed, serostatus moderated the relationship between pegboard performance and striatal volume. Both HIV infection and age were associated with reduced striatal volume. The lack of interaction of these two predictors suggests that HIV infection is associated with premature, but not accelerated, brain age. In serostatus groups matched on demographic and clinical variables, there were no observed differences in neuropsychological performance. Striatal GMV measures may be promising biomarker for use in studies of treated HIV infection.