Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle with multiple forms. Intermediate hosts such as humans are infected by sporozoites in oocysts or bradyzoites in pseudocysts whereas the sexual stages occur in the intestine of the definitive host, feline species. The parasite is unusual in that it does not need to pass through sexual stages or its definitive host for transmission to other species. This chapter summarizes the history of the discovery of the parasite, identification of the definitive host and transmission stages of the parasite, as well as other important discoveries in the basic biology and life cycle of T. gondii. This chapter also provides photomicrographs of the life cycle stages of this organism.