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The histone deacetylases Rpd3 and Hst1 antagonistically regulate de novo NAD+ metabolism in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors
  • Groth, Benjamin
  • Huang, Chi-Chun
  • Lin, Su-Ju
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2022
Source
eScholarship - University of California
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Abstract

NAD+ is a cellular redox cofactor involved in many essential processes. The regulation of NAD+ metabolism and the signaling networks reciprocally interacting with NAD+-producing metabolic pathways are not yet fully understood. The NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1 has been shown to inhibit de novo NAD+ synthesis by repressing biosynthesis of nicotinic acid (BNA) gene expression. Here, we alternatively identify HDAC Rpd3 as a positive regulator of de novo NAD+ metabolism in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We reveal that deletion of RPD3 causes marked decreases in the production of de novo pathway metabolites, in direct contrast to deletion of HST1. We determined the BNA expression profiles of rpd3Δ and hst1Δ cells to be similarly opposed, suggesting the two HDACs may regulate the BNA genes in an antagonistic fashion. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Rpd3 and Hst1 mutually influence each other's binding distribution at the BNA2 promoter. We demonstrate Hst1 to be the main deacetylase active at the BNA2 promoter, with hst1Δ cells displaying increased acetylation of the N-terminal tail lysine residues of histone H4, H4K5, and H4K12. Conversely, we show that deletion of RPD3 reduces the acetylation of these residues in an Hst1-dependent manner. This suggests that Rpd3 may function to oppose spreading of Hst1-dependent heterochromatin and represents a unique form of antagonism between HDACs in regulating gene expression. Moreover, we found that Rpd3 and Hst1 also coregulate additional targets involved in other branches of NAD+ metabolism. These findings help elucidate the complex interconnections involved in effecting the regulation of NAD+ metabolism.

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