Histone deacetylase (HDAC)6 is a member of the class IIb HDAC family. This enzyme is zinc-dependent and mainly localized in the cytoplasm. HDAC6 is a unique isoenzyme with two functional catalytic domains and specific physiological roles. Indeed, HDAC6 deacetylates various substrates including α-tubulin and HSP90α, and is involved in protein trafficking and degradation, cell shape and migration. Consequently, deregulation of HDAC6 activity was associated to a variety of diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and pathological autoimmune response. Therefore, HDAC6 represents an interesting potential therapeutic target. In this review, we discuss structural features of this histone deacetylase, regulation of its expression and activity, biological functions, implication in human disease initiation and progression. Finally will describe novel and selective HDAC6 inhibitors.