BackgroundAs important enzymes regulating acetylation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) participate in a series of cell physiological process. However, the mechanisms responsible for individual HDAC family members in regulating innate immunity remained to be elucidated. Here we sought to reveal the mechanism of HDAC3 in regulating the inflammatory response of macrophages.MethodsRNAseq was done to detect the transcriptional influence of HDAC3 on macrophages. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes was used to reveal the change of signaling pathways after HDAC3 knockout. CHIPseq was done to detect the deacetylation modification of HDAC3 on chromosome. Western blot, immunofluorescence, and real-time quantitative PCR were used to measure the change of genes and proteins' levels. Mice were intratracheal instillation with lipopolysaccharide or Pseudomonas aeruginosa to determine the influence of HDAC3 on inflammatory response in vivo.ResultsHDAC3-deficient macrophages had increased expression of cathepsins resulting from elevated histone acetylation. Over-expressed cathepsins such as cathepsin B (CTSB) caused remarkable degradation of receptor (TNFRSF)-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1 (RIP1), which reduced TNFα mediated NF-κB activation and inflammatory response. Consistently, mice with macrophage specific knockout of HDAC3 were impaired in inflammatory response and thereby susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.ConclusionHDAC3 was required for protecting RIP1 from degrading by CTSB in macrophages. Decreased RIP1 in HDAC3 knockout macrophages impaired TNFα mediated NF-κB activation. Our studies uncovered important roles of HDAC3 in the regulation of cathepsin-mediated lysosomal degradation and RIP1-mediated inflammatory response in macrophages as well as in host defense against bacterial infection.