The biometry and the histology of coronary, radial, ulnar, epigastric and internal thoracic arteries were studied in order to investigate the cause of their occlusions in coronary bypass grafts and to improve the results of these bypass grafts. These various arteries were removed from 40 anatomical specimens (27 males and 13 females). We found a correlation between the internal calibers of the ulnar and coronary arteries in males. Intimal changes and the presence of atheromatous plaque were observed in coronary, radial and ulnar arteries, but never in the internal thoracic artery. Like coronary arteries and their branches, radial, ulnar and epigastric arteries are muscular arteries and ageing results in thickening of the intima, which becomes fibrotic with migration of myocytes from the media and duplication of the internal elastic lamina. The media becomes fibrous, hypertrophic or atrophic. In contrast, the internal thoracic artery is an elastic artery, like the aorta. Ageing is characterized by loss, over a variable extent, of one or several elastic laminae of the media and more marked intimal thickening. Although anatomically, the caliber of radial, ulnar, and epigastric arteries remains adapted to that of coronary arteries, the long-term patency of radial, ulnar and epigastric arteries used as grafts is related to their histological characteristics.