The evolution of life on earth eventually leads to the emergence of species with increased complexity and diversity. Similarly, evolutionary chemical space exploration in the laboratory is a key step to pursue the structural and functional diversity of supramolecular systems. Here, we present a powerful tool that enables rapid peptide diversification and employ it to expand the chemical space for supramolecular functions. Central to this strategy is the exploitation of palladium-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions to direct combinatorial synthesis of peptide arrays in microtiter plates under an open atmosphere. Taking advantage of this in situ library design, our results unambiguously deliver a fertile platform for creating a set of intriguing peptide functions including green fluorescent protein-like peptide emitters with chemically encoded emission colors, hierarchical self-assembly into nano-objects, and macroscopic hydrogels. This work also offers opportunities for quickly surveying the diversified peptide arrays and thereby identifying the structural factors that modulate peptide properties.