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Alimentary and Pharmaceutical Approach to Natural Antimicrobials against Clostridioides difficile Gastrointestinal Infection.

Authors
  • Tortajada-Girbés, Miguel1
  • Rivas, Alejandro2
  • Hernández, Manuel3
  • González, Ana3
  • Ferrús, Maria A3
  • Pina-Pérez, Maria C4
  • 1 Department of Pediatrics, University Dr. Peset Hospital, Avda, de Gaspar Aguilar, 90, 46017 Valencia, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 2 Departmento Tecnología de Alimentos, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica y del Medio Natural (ETSIAMN), Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 3 Departmento Biotecnología, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica y del Medio Natural (ETSIAMN), Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 4 Departmento Microbiologia y Ecología, Facultad Ciencias Biológicas, Universitat de València, C/Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Spain. , (Spain)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Foods
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
May 19, 2021
Volume
10
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/foods10051124
PMID: 34069413
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Incidence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) has been increasing in recent decades due to different factors, namely (i) extended use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, (ii) transmission within asymptomatic and susceptible patients, and (iii) unbalanced gastrointestinal microbiome and collateral diseases that favor C. difficile gastrointestinal domination and toxin production. Although antibiotic therapies have resulted in successful control of CDI in the last 20 years, the development of novel strategies is urged in order to combat the capability of C. difficile to generate and acquire resistance to conventional treatments and its consequent proliferation. In this regard, vegetable and marine bioactives have emerged as alternative and effective molecules to fight against this concerning pathogen. The present review examines the effectiveness of natural antimicrobials from vegetable and algae origin that have been used experimentally in in vitro and in vivo settings to prevent and combat CDI. The aim of the present work is to contribute to accurately describe the prospective use of emerging antimicrobials as future nutraceuticals and preventive therapies, namely (i) as dietary supplement to prevent CDI and reduce CDI recurrence by means of microbiota modulation and (ii) administering them complementarily to other treatments requiring antibiotics to prevent C. difficile gut invasion and infection progression.

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