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Highly effective three-dimensional functionalization of graphite to graphene by wet chemical exfoliation methods

Authors
  • Kamedulski, Piotr1
  • Ilnicka, Anna1
  • Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P.1, 2
  • Skorupska, Malgorzata1
  • 1 Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry, Gagarina 7, Torun, 87-100, Poland , Torun (Poland)
  • 2 Centre for Modern Interdisciplinary Technologies, Wilenska 4, Torun, 87-100, Poland , Torun (Poland)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Adsorption
Publisher
Springer US
Publication Date
Mar 26, 2019
Volume
25
Issue
3
Pages
631–638
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10450-019-00067-9
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

The paper presents results on the three-dimensional (3D) functionalization of graphite-originated flakes to graphene by carbonization of specific precursors in the presence of a hard template. In situ precipitated Na2CO3 nanocrystals or CaCO3 nano-powder were used as a hard template. Graphene flakes were obtained by a wet chemistry exfoliation of commercial graphite. The flakes were premixed with a non-specific binder and the hard template and then carbonized at temperatures of 700 to 800 °C under the flow of nitrogen. The addition of a template allowed to increase the surface area up 287 m2/g for the Na2CO3 template and 333 m2/g in the case of CaCO3, while the surface area of 25 m2/g was noted for the raw graphite. Several instrumental methods were applied for the characterization of the obtained 3D-graphene materials: combustion elemental analysis, SEM, HRTEM, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen. The effect of the addition of a template and the carbonization temperature on the surface area of the 3D structured graphene was demonstrated. The wet-chemistry method led to an efficient deglomeration of graphene flakes to double (DLG) and few (FLG) layered graphene. The proposed method is inexpensive.

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