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High-Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Nitroxide-Functionalized Nanodiamonds in Aqueous Solution.

Authors
  • Akiel, R D1
  • Stepanov, V1
  • Takahashi, S2, 3
  • 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA.
  • 2 Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA. [email protected]
  • 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA. [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
June 2017
Volume
75
Issue
2
Pages
151–157
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s12013-016-0739-4
PMID: 27324044
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Nanodiamond (ND) is an attractive class of nanomaterial for fluorescent labeling, magnetic sensing of biological molecules, and targeted drug delivery. Many of those applications require tethering of target biological molecules on the ND surface. Even though many approaches have been developed to attach macromolecules to the ND surface, it remains challenging to characterize dynamics of tethered molecule. Here, we show high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HF EPR) spectroscopy of nitroxide-functionalized NDs. Nitroxide radical is a commonly used spin label to investigate dynamics of biological molecules. In the investigation, we developed a sample holder to overcome water absorption of HF microwave. Then, we demonstrated HF EPR spectroscopy of nitroxide-functionalized NDs in aqueous solution and showed clear spectral distinction of ND and nitroxide EPR signals. Moreover, through EPR spectral analysis, we investigate dynamics of nitroxide radicals on the ND surface. The demonstration sheds light on the use of HF EPR spectroscopy to investigate biological molecule-functionalized nanoparticles.

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