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High-Density Lipoproteins as Homeostatic Nanoparticles of Blood Plasma.

Authors
  • Kudinov, Vasily A1, 2
  • Alekseeva, Olga Yu3, 4
  • Torkhovskaya, Tatiana I5
  • Baskaev, Konstantin K2
  • Artyushev, Rafael I2
  • Saburina, Irina N1
  • Markin, Sergey S6
  • 1 Laboratory of Cell Biology and Developmental Pathology, FSBSI Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, 125315 Moscow, Russia.
  • 2 Experimental Drug Research and Production Department, Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, 119121 Moscow, Russia.
  • 3 Cell Physiology Laboratory, Institute of Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, 123007 Moscow, Russia.
  • 4 Department of Biochemistry, People's Friendship University (RUDN University), 117198 Moscow, Russia.
  • 5 Laboratory of Phospholipid Transport Systems and Nanomedicines, Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, 119121 Moscow, Russia.
  • 6 Clinical Research Department, Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, 119121 Moscow, Russia.
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Nov 19, 2020
Volume
21
Issue
22
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/ijms21228737
PMID: 33228032
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

It is well known that blood lipoproteins (LPs) are multimolecular complexes of lipids and proteins that play a crucial role in lipid transport. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are a class of blood plasma LPs that mediate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)-cholesterol transport from the peripheral tissues to the liver. Due to this ability to promote cholesterol uptake from cell membranes, HDL possess antiatherogenic properties. This function was first observed at the end of the 1970s to the beginning of the 1980s, resulting in high interest in this class of LPs. It was shown that HDL are the prevalent class of LPs in several types of living organisms (from fishes to monkeys) with high resistance to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. Lately, understanding of the mechanisms of the antiatherogenic properties of HDL has significantly expanded. Besides the contribution to RCT, HDL have been shown to modulate inflammatory processes, blood clotting, and vasomotor responses. These particles also possess antioxidant properties and contribute to immune reactions and intercellular signaling. Herein, we review data on the structure and mechanisms of the pleiotropic biological functions of HDL from the point of view of their evolutionary role and complex dynamic nature.

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