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High-Density Lipoprotein Modifications: A Pathological Consequence or Cause of Disease Progression?

Authors
  • Márquez, Andrea Bonnin1, 2
  • Nazir, Sumra1, 2
  • van der Vorst, Emiel P.C.1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • 1 (S.N.)
  • 2 Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research (IZKF), RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany
  • 3 Department of Pathology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands
  • 4 Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention (IPEK), Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
  • 5 German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), partner site Munich Heart Alliance, 80336 Munich, Germany
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biomedicines
Publisher
MDPI
Publication Date
Nov 28, 2020
Volume
8
Issue
12
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines8120549
PMID: 33260660
PMCID: PMC7759904
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Green

Abstract

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is well-known for its cardioprotective effects, as it possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-thrombotic, and cytoprotective properties. Traditionally, studies and therapeutic approaches have focused on raising HDL cholesterol levels. Recently, it became evident that, not HDL cholesterol, but HDL composition and functionality, is probably a more fruitful target. In disorders, such as chronic kidney disease or cardiovascular diseases, it has been observed that HDL is modified and becomes dysfunctional. There are different modification that can occur, such as serum amyloid, an enrichment and oxidation, carbamylation, and glycation of key proteins. Additionally, the composition of HDL can be affected by changes to enzymes such as cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) or by modification to other important components. This review will highlight some main modifications to HDL and discuss whether these modifications are purely a consequential result of pathology or are actually involved in the pathology itself and have a causal role. Therefore, HDL composition may present a molecular target for the amelioration of certain diseases, but more information is needed to determine to what extent HDL modifications play a causal role in disease development.

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