In this article, we prove that exact representations of dimer and plaquette valence-bond ket ground states for quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets may be formed via the usual coupled cluster method (CCM) from independent-spin product (e.g. N\'eel) model states. We show that we are able to provide good results for both the ground-state energy and the sublattice magnetization for dimer and plaquette valence-bond phases within the CCM. As a first example, we investigate the spin-half $J_1$--$J_2$ model for the linear chain, and we show that we are able to reproduce exactly the dimerized ground (ket) state at $J_2/J_1=0.5$. The dimerized phase is stable over a range of values for $J_2/J_1$ around 0.5. We present evidence of symmetry breaking by considering the ket- and bra-state correlation coefficients as a function of $J_2/J_1$. We then consider the Shastry-Sutherland model and demonstrate that the CCM can span the correct ground states in both the N\'eel and the dimerized phases. Finally, we consider a spin-half system with nearest-neighbor bonds for an underlying lattice corresponding to the magnetic material CaV$_4$O$_9$ (CAVO). We show that we are able to provide excellent results for the ground-state energy in each of the plaquette-ordered, N\'eel-ordered, and dimerized regimes of this model. The exact plaquette and dimer ground states are reproduced by the CCM ket state in their relevant limits.