Background Oleic-acid consumption can possibly prevent or delay metabolic diseases. In Israel, a Virginia-type peanut cultivar with a high content of oleic acid has been developed. Objective This study examined the effect of consuming high oleic peanuts (D7) on the development of fatty liver compared to the standard HN strain. Design The two peanut cultivars were added to normal diet (ND) and high-fat (HF) mouse diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 and 10 weeks on a 4% D7, 4% HN, or control diet. At the end of the experiments, blood and tissues were collected. Triglyceride, lipid levels, histology, and protein expression were examined. The diets’ effects on intestinal microbiota were also evaluated. Results Both D7 and HFD7 led to a reduction in plasma triglycerides. Lipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids in the liver were low in diets containing D7. Additionally, CD36 expression decreased in the D7 group. Consumption of D7 led to higher Prevotella levels, and consumption of ND that contained HN or D7 led to a lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Conclusion These findings suggest that consumption of peanuts high in oleic acid (D7) may have the potential to delay primary fatty liver symptoms.