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High mortality risk of prostate cancer patients in Asia and West Africa: A systematic review

Authors
  • Okoye, Jude O
Type
Published Article
Journal
Avicenna Journal of Medicine
Publisher
Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Publication Date
Jul 03, 2020
Volume
10
Issue
3
Pages
93–101
Identifiers
DOI: 10.4103/ajm.ajm_19_20
PMID: 32832424
PMCID: PMC7414604
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Globally, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most preponderant cancer in men. It contributes to the high mortality-to-incidence ratio reported in West Africa and Asia largely due to low screening. The mortality risk is determined or predicted based on the prevalence of high-risk or aggressive PCa using a scoring or grading system such as Gleason score (GS), Gleason grade (GG), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. In this review, peer-reviewed articles found on databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed Central and, EMBASE were selected based on adherence to clinical guidelines for the classification of PCa. In West Africa and Asia, the result revealed that the frequency of high-risk PCa was 42% and 51.2% based on GS, 48.8% and 25.3% based on GG pattern, and 87.5% and 44.3% based on PSA level >10 ng/mL, respectively. Data revealed a high prevalence of high-risk PCa both in West Africa and Asia when compared with developed countries. However, the prevalence of high-risk PCa is higher in West Africa than in Asia. Studies have shown that high-risk PCas are associated with germline mutations and such mutations are prevalent in blacks and Asians than in whites. Thus, testing for germline mutations in patients with GS of ≥ 7, GG ≥ 3, high prostate density, low prostate volume, and PSA levels of >4.0 ng/mL may identify those at risk of developing lethal PCa and could reduce the mortality rates in Asia and West Africa.

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