Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, is a human gamma herpesvirus that underlies the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. We recently encountered two cases of HHV8-positive large B-cell lymphoma with features not previously described. The first patient was a 61-year-old immunocompetent man with an enlarged cervical lymph node containing scattered large, bizarre cells in a reactive background of lymphocytes, plasma cells and scattered regressed follicles resembling those of hyaline-vascular Castleman's disease. The appearance suggested classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, but the large cells were negative for CD15, CD30, CD20 and CD3, and positive for MUM1/IRF4, EMA, HHV8, EBER and dim IgM lambda. The second patient was a 59-year-old HIV-positive man who died after several weeks of fever, night sweats, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and multiorgan failure. At autopsy an intravascular large B-cell lymphoma that was positive for MUM1/IRF4, HHV8 and IgM lambda, and negative for CD20 and EBER involved multiple organs, including lung, heart, kidney, liver and spleen. On the basis of the histologic features in these two cases, the presence of HHV8 was unexpected. These cases expand the spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders that can be associated with HHV8.