Natural rubber or latex from the Hevea brasiliensis is an important commodity in various economic sectors in today's modern society. Proteins have been detected in latex since the early twentieth century, and they are known to regulate various biological pathways within the H. brasiliensis trees such as the natural rubber biosynthesis, defence against pathogens, wound healing, and stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanisms of the pathways are still not clear. Proteomic analyses on latex have found various proteins and revealed how they fit into the mechanisms of the biological pathways. In the past three decades, there has been rapid latex protein identification due to the improvement of latex protein extraction methods, as well as the emergence of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). In this manuscript, we reviewed the methods of latex protein extraction that keeps on improving over the past three decades as well as the results of numerous latex protein identification and quantitation.