We describe a progressive neurologic disorder in three sisters characterized clinically by palatal myoclonus, spastic weakness, hyperreflexia, mild cerebellar dysfunction, and ocular motor abnormalities. Postmortem examination of one patient demonstrated widespread Rosenthal fiber deposition associated with demyelination. The father previously was reported to have similar pathologic findings and carried a clinical diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. These clinical and pathologic findings describe a rare familial leukodystrophy that corresponds most closely to cases reported as adult Alexander's disease. Although similar pathologically to the well-characterized infantile variant of Alexander's disease, it is not known whether this adult variant represents the same disease process.