Hepatitis E is the fifth known form of human viral hepatitis. Although not very common in our clinical practice, the incidence in Western countries is increasing. Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) may be related to acute illness, liver failure, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. HEV itself is an RNA virus, with eight described genotypes (HEV 1-8), four of which more commonly affect humans and have, thus, been better studied. Besides liver manifestations, genotype 3 is also related to extra-hepatic manifestations, such as neurological, renal and rheumatological. Evolution to chronic disease occurs especially in patients who underwent transplantation, have hematological malignancies requiring chemotherapy, or have infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. The diagnosis may be difficult because of the low availability of tests and due to low sensibility and specificity. The acute form of illness does not have to be treated, but the chronic one does. We present here a literature review of hepatitis E and the relation between chronic hepatitis E and transplantation.