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Hepatitis C virus proteins interfere with the activation of chemokine gene promoters and downregulate chemokine gene expression.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of general virology
Publication Date
Volume
89
Issue
Pt 2
Pages
432–443
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.83316-0
PMID: 18198374
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural (NS) 3/4A protein complex inhibits the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathway by proteolytically cleaving mitochondria-associated CARD-containing adaptor protein Cardif, and this leads to reduced production of beta interferon (IFN-beta). This study examined the expression of CCL5 (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted, or RANTES), CXCL8 (interleukin 8) and CXCL10 (IFN-gamma-activated protein 10, or IP-10) chemokine genes in osteosarcoma cell lines that inducibly expressed NS3/4A, NS4B, core-E1-E2-p7 and the entire HCV polyprotein. Sendai virus (SeV)-induced production of IFN-beta, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10 was downregulated by the NS3/4A protein complex and by the full-length HCV polyprotein. Expression of NS3/4A and the HCV polyprotein reduced the binding of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) 1 and 3 and, to a lesser extent, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB (p65/p50) to their respective binding elements on the CXCL10 promoter during SeV infection. Furthermore, binding of IRF1 and IRF3 to the interferon-stimulated response element-like element, and of c-Jun and phosphorylated c-Jun to the activator protein 1 element of the CXCL8 promoter, was reduced when NS3/4A and the HCV polyprotein were expressed. In cell lines expressing NS3/4A and the HCV polyprotein, the subcellular localization of mitochondria was changed, and this was kinetically associated with the partial degradation of endogenous Cardif. These results indicate that NS3/4A alone or as part of the HCV polyprotein disturbs the expression of IRF1- and IRF3-regulated genes, as well as affecting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase- and NF-kappaB-regulated genes.

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