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Hepatitis C virus proteins interfere with the activation of chemokine gene promoters and downregulate chemokine gene expression.

Authors
  • Sillanpää, Maarit
  • Kaukinen, Pasi
  • Melén, Krister
  • Julkunen, Ilkka
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of general virology
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2008
Volume
89
Issue
Pt 2
Pages
432–443
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.83316-0
PMID: 18198374
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural (NS) 3/4A protein complex inhibits the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathway by proteolytically cleaving mitochondria-associated CARD-containing adaptor protein Cardif, and this leads to reduced production of beta interferon (IFN-beta). This study examined the expression of CCL5 (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted, or RANTES), CXCL8 (interleukin 8) and CXCL10 (IFN-gamma-activated protein 10, or IP-10) chemokine genes in osteosarcoma cell lines that inducibly expressed NS3/4A, NS4B, core-E1-E2-p7 and the entire HCV polyprotein. Sendai virus (SeV)-induced production of IFN-beta, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10 was downregulated by the NS3/4A protein complex and by the full-length HCV polyprotein. Expression of NS3/4A and the HCV polyprotein reduced the binding of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) 1 and 3 and, to a lesser extent, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB (p65/p50) to their respective binding elements on the CXCL10 promoter during SeV infection. Furthermore, binding of IRF1 and IRF3 to the interferon-stimulated response element-like element, and of c-Jun and phosphorylated c-Jun to the activator protein 1 element of the CXCL8 promoter, was reduced when NS3/4A and the HCV polyprotein were expressed. In cell lines expressing NS3/4A and the HCV polyprotein, the subcellular localization of mitochondria was changed, and this was kinetically associated with the partial degradation of endogenous Cardif. These results indicate that NS3/4A alone or as part of the HCV polyprotein disturbs the expression of IRF1- and IRF3-regulated genes, as well as affecting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase- and NF-kappaB-regulated genes.

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