Our results show that the prevalence of hepatitis C is lower in our patients that the prevalence reported by many others (average of other countries 18.5%). Since we found a higher prevalence in HD than in CAPD, even with the lower time under dialysis in the HD group, it is possible that our lower overall prevalence is secondary to the fact that CAPD is the most frequent mode of dialysis in our country. We observed the highest prevalence in the PD/HD group, that is probably due to longer exposure to the risk factors. The association with transfusions before 1991 indicates that the infection was acquired in some patients before dialysis was started. Our results showed that the CAPD is the dialysis technique with lower risk of hepatitis C infection.