The effects of partial liver resection on hemodynamics and the oxygen delivery-consumption relationship were evaluated in ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The cardiac index and oxygen delivery were increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 30 minutes after incision, 30 min after liver resection and in the recovery room. Oxygen delivery decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during liver resection. Oxygen consumption remained low throughout the procedure. We did not discover any flow-dependent change in oxygen consumption. Although our patients persisted a hyperdynamic state throughout surgery, their arterial ketone body ratio remained low. Therefore, it may be necessary to maintain a hyperdynamic state during partial liver resection in order to increase hepatic blood flow.