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Hemodynamic findings in normotensive women with small-for-gestational-age and growth-restricted fetuses.

  • Di Pasquo, Elvira1
  • Ghi, Tullio1
  • Dall'Asta, Andrea1
  • Angeli, Laura1
  • Ciavarella, Sara1
  • Armano, Giulia1
  • Sesenna, Veronica1
  • Di Peri, Antonio2
  • Frusca, Tiziana1
  • 1 Department of Medicine and Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 2 Department of Neonatology, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. , (Italy)
Published Article
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Wiley (Blackwell Publishing)
Publication Date
May 01, 2021
DOI: 10.1111/aogs.14026
PMID: 33084031


Fetal growth restriction (FGR) in most instances is a consequence of primary placental dysfunction due to inadequate trophoblastic invasion. Maternal cardiac maladaptation to pregnancy has been proposed as a possible determinant of placental insufficiency and impaired fetal growth. This study aimed to compare the maternal hemodynamic parameters between normotensive women with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and FGR fetuses and to evaluate their correlation with neonatal outcome. An observational cohort study including singleton pregnancies referred to our tertiary care center due to fetal smallness. At the time of diagnosis, fetuses were classified as SGA or FGR according to the Delphi consensus criteria, and pregnant women underwent hemodynamic assessment using a cardiac output monitor. A group of women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies ar ≥35 weeks of gestation were recruited as controls. Cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, and heart rate were measured and compared among the three groups (controls vs FGR vs SGA). The correlation between antenatal findings and neonatal outcome was also evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 51 women with fetal smallness were assessed at 34.8 ± 2.6 weeks. SGA and FGR were diagnosed in 22 and 29 cases, respectively. The control group included 61 women assessed at 36.5 ± 0.8 weeks of gestation. Women with FGR had a lower cardiac output Z-score (respectively, -1.3 ± 1.2 vs -0.4 ± 0.8 vs -0.2 ± 1.0; P < .001) and a higher systemic vascular resistance Z-score (respectively, 1.2 ± 1.2 vs 0.2 ± 1.1 vs -0.02 ± 1.2; P < .001) compared with both SGA and controls, whereas no difference in the hemodynamic parameters was found between women with SGA and controls. The incidence of neonatal intensive care unit admission did not differ between SGA and FGR fetuses (18.2% vs 41.4%; P = .13), but FGR fetuses had a longer hospitalization compared with SGA fetuses (14.2 ± 17.7 vs 4.5 ± 1.6 days; P = .02). Multivariate analysis showed that the cardiac output Z-score at diagnosis (P = .012) and the birthweight Z-score (P = .007) were independent predictors of the length of neonatal hospitalization. Different maternal hemodynamic profiles characterize women with SGA or FGR fetuses. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between the maternal cardiac output and the length of neonatal hospitalization. © 2020 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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