In the frame of an active monitoring study at the Serra do Mar near the industrial pool of Cubatão, Brazil,Hemerocallis was tested for its suitability as bioindicator of airborne fluoride pollution. In a screening experiment with various cultivars comparison of susceptibility, correlation of visible injury and foliar fluoride concentration as well as comparison with exposure ofGladiolus gave best results for theHemerocallis cultivar 'Red Moon'. When exposed simultaneously foliar fluoride accumulation ofHemerocallis showed a highly significant linear correlation with fluoride content ofLolium multiflorum, the 'standardized grass culture' andGladiolus, well-known bioindicator species for fluoride impact. With respect to the extent of foliar injuryHemerocallis was less sensitive thanGladiolus, in terms of accumulation capacity it ranged betweenLolium andGladiolus. In general, the results of the biomonitoring study proved that the Atlantic Forest vegetation in a valley downwind from the Cubatão fertilizer industries is still suffering from severe fluoride pollution.