The number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations is continuously increasing. On the one hand reduced intensity conditioning and improved supportive therapies allow for transplantations in patients with significant comorbidities and up to their eighth decade of life. Due to this development the number of complex and critically ill patients in need of intensive care is constantly growing. Recent developments in general critical care such as sepsis bundles and non-invasive ventilation contribute to a better outcome of these patients. However, treatment algorithms that identify patients potentially benefitting from intensive care but also reduce overtreatment of moribund patients represent a central multidisciplinary challenge not only for the treating transplant physician and intensivist.