The OLETF rat develops microangiopathic complications similar to human diabetes and is considered a useful model of Type 2 DM. Erythrocyte, platelet and leucocyte abnormalities described in diabetic patients are thought to play a role in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. This study was designed to investigate whether OLETF rats show hematological alterations and the effect of sucrose treatment on metabolic and blood parameters. Hematological parameters, body weight, food and water intake, fasting and non-fasting blood glucose (BG) and HbA1c were measured in OLETF rats treated for two months with 30% sucrose added to drinking water. Non-treated OLETF rats and non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used as controls. In the control OLETF rats the number of platelets (Plt) and red blood cells (RBC) was higher, while the mean cell volume (MCV) and the mean cell hemoglobin content (MCH) were lower compared with LETO. Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was significantly higher in the diabetic rats. Sucrose administration decreased food intake and body weight and increased fasting blood glucose and HbA1c. It resulted in a decrease of RBC, Hb, Hct, MCV and MCH compared with control OLETF, while Plt count increased significantly. Our results point to significant alterations in erythrocyte count and morphology and Plt count in diabetic OLETF rats compared with non-diabetic LETO. Sucrose administration accelerated the development of diabetes, affected blood cells inducing the suppression of RBC and an increase in Plt count and some of its effects persisted after sucrose withdrawal.