Barrett's esophagus is an anatomicoclinical state in which, due to the prolonged action of gastroesophageal reflux, the squamous epithelium is replaced by columnar epithelium. Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal disorders and has occasionally been observed in Barrett's esophagus. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of H. pylori in Barrett's esophagus and try to establish its role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. H. pylori was observed in 31 biopsies (44.3%) of the 70 studied, mainly when the epithelium is of the gastric atrophic-fundic type (p less than 0.01). Its presence shows no relation to the degree of inflammatory activity and does not seem, therefore, to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the lesion.