Important new data were published during the past year on the relationship of Helicobacter infection and gastric neoplasias. In the pathogenesis of gastric cancer, a thrilling new hypothesis was put forward based on animal experiments. Helicobacter infection induces gastric mucosal damage and bone marrow-derived cells (mobilized into peripheral blood and attracted to the inflamed mucosa) replace the areas of damaged gastric tissue and turn into neoplastic proliferation. Several studies focused on mechanisms related to the development of gastric malignancy in infected individuals with particular attention to inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms. Some new evidence is also reported to suggest that Helicobacter infection increases the risk of neoplasias outside the stomach in the liver and colon.