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Heightened systemic levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary tuberculosis and alterations following anti-tuberculosis treatment.

Authors
  • Moideen, Kadar1
  • Kumar, Nathella P1
  • Bethunaickan, Ramalingam2
  • Banurekha, Vaithilingam V2
  • Nair, Dina2
  • Babu, Subash3
  • 1 National Institutes of Health-NIRT-International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India. , (India)
  • 2 National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai, India. , (India)
  • 3 National Institutes of Health-NIRT-International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India; LPD, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, USA. Electronic address: [email protected] , (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cytokine
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Dec 04, 2019
Volume
127
Pages
154929–154929
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.cyto.2019.154929
PMID: 31811994
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Pro-inflammatory cytokines are markers of disease severity and bacterial burden in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, the association of Type 2, regulatory and other anti-inflammatory cytokines with disease severity and bacterial burden in PTB is not well understood. To examine the association of anti-inflammatory cytokines with PTB, we examined the plasma levels of Type 2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), regulatory (IL-10, TGFβ) and other anti-inflammatory (IL-19, IL-27, IL-37) cytokines in individuals with PTB, latent TB (LTB) or healthy controls (HC). We also examined the plasma levels of these cytokines in PTB individuals following anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). PTB individuals exhibited significantly higher plasma levels of IL-4, IL-13, IL-10, IL-19 and IL-27 in comparison to LTB and HC individuals and of TGFβ in comparison to HC individuals. In contrast, PTB individuals exhibited significantly lower plasma levels of IL-5 and IL-37 in comparison to both LTB and HC individuals. PTB individuals with bilateral or cavitary disease did not exhibit significantly different plasma levels of these cytokines in comparison to those with unilateral or non-cavitary disease nor did the cytokines exhibit any significant relationship with bacterial burdens. Finally, following ATT, the plasma levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 were significantly decreased, while the plasma levels of IL-13 and IL-37 were significantly increased in PTB individuals. Therefore, our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with altered levels of Type 2, regulatory and other anti-inflammatory cytokines, some of which are altered followed chemotherapy. Our data also reveal that anti-inflammatory cytokines are not markers of disease severity or bacterial burden in PTB. Elevations in anti-inflammatory cytokines might help prevent the detrimental effects of pro-inflammatory responses in PTB. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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