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Healthy diet reduces markers of cardiac injury and inflammation regardless of macronutrients: Results from the OmniHeart trial.

Authors
  • Kovell, Lara C1
  • Yeung, Edwina H2
  • Miller, Edgar R 3rd3
  • Appel, Lawrence J3
  • Christenson, Robert H4
  • Rebuck, Heather4
  • Schulman, Steven P5
  • Juraschek, Stephen P6
  • 1 Division of Cardiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States of America. , (United States)
  • 2 Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States of America. , (United States)
  • 3 Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States of America. , (United States)
  • 4 Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America. , (United States)
  • 5 Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America. , (United States)
  • 6 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Israel)
Type
Published Article
Journal
International journal of cardiology
Publication Date
Jan 15, 2020
Volume
299
Pages
282–288
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.07.102
PMID: 31447226
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Despite diet being a first-line strategy for preventing cardiovascular disease, the optimal macronutrient profile remains unclear. We studied the effects of macronutrient profile on subclinical cardiovascular injury and inflammation. OmniHeart was a randomized 3-period, crossover feeding study in 164 adults with high blood pressure or hypertension (SBP 120-159 or DBP 80-99 mm Hg). Participants were fed each of 3 diets (emphasizing carbohydrate (CARB), protein (PROT), or unsaturated fat (UNSAT)) for 6-weeks, with feeding periods separated by a washout period. Weight was held constant. Fasting serum was collected at baseline while participants ate their own diets and after each feeding period. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured in stored specimens. The average age was 53.6 years, 55% were African American, and 45% were women. At baseline, the median (25th-percentile, 75th-percentile) hs-cTnI was 3.3 ng/L (1.9, 5.6) and hs-CRP was 2.2 mg/L (1.1, 5.2). Compared to baseline, all 3 diets reduced hs-cTnI: CARB -8.6% (95%CI: -16.1, -0.4), PROT -10.8% (-18.4, -2.5), and UNSAT -9.4% (-17.4, -0.5). Hs-CRP was similarly changed by -13.9 to -17.0%. Hs-cTnI and hs-CRP reductions were of similar magnitudes as SBP and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) but were not associated with these risk-factor reductions (P-values = 0.09). There were no between-diet differences in hs-cTnI and hs-CRP reductions. Healthy diet, regardless of macronutrient emphasis, directly mitigated subclinical cardiac injury and inflammation in a population at risk for cardiovascular disease. These findings support dietary recommendations emphasizing healthy foods rather than any one macronutrient. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number: NCT00051350; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00051350. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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