Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) has adverse health outcomes for women and children. In pregnant women, the infection causes adverse obstetric outcomes including pelvic inflammation, ectopic pregnancy, and miscarriage. In children, it causes adverse birth outcomes such as skin rash, lesions, limb abnormalities, conjunctivitis, neurological damage, and even death. This article discusses genital CT prevalence, risk factors, and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes among women and children in sub-Saharan Africa as well as challenges associated with the mitigation of the disease. A comprehensive search of databases including PubMed, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar was conducted using keywords such as genital chlamydia trachomatis, adverse pregnancy outcomes, adverse birth outcomes, and sub-Saharan African. We found that genital CT prevalence rates in some sub-Saharan Africa countries were higher than others and that risk factors such as the lack of condom use, having multiple sexual partners, and low educational levels contribute to the transmission of the infection. We also found that negative cultural practices, illiteracy among women, and the lack of access to screening services during pregnancy are some of the challenges associated with CT mitigation in sub-Saharan Africa. To reduce genital CT transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, efforts must be made by country governments to eliminate negative cultural practices, promote female literacy, and provide access to screening services for pregnant women.