Imatinib became the standard treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) about 20 years ago, which was a major breakthrough in stabilizing the pathology and improving the quality of life of patients. However, the emergence of resistance to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors leads researchers to characterize new therapeutic targets. Several studies have highlighted the role of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in various pathologies, including cancer. This protein effectively intervenes in cellular activities by its primarily cytoplasmic localization. In this review, we will discuss the molecular characteristics of the HDAC6 protein, as well as its overexpression in CML leukemic stem cells, which make it a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of CML.