France has been identified with one of the highest rates of hazardous drinking and hypnotic consumption in Western countries. Medical students have been identified at risk for hazardous drinking yet we lacked of national data on their hypnotic consumption and associated factors to guide public health policies. To determine the prevalence of hazardous drinking and dependence among French medical students and their association with psychotropic drug consumption and psychosocial factors. Medical students were recruited from 35 French universities of medicine through administration mailing lists and social networks, between December 13, 2016 and May 15, 2017. Hazardous drinking was defined by an Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score ≥ 7 for men and ≥ 6 for women. 10,985 medical students with a mean aged of 21.8 years (± 3.3) were included, 32% of which were male. Overall, 3713 (34%) students reported hazardous drinking (41% for men vs. 31% for women) and 820 participants (8%) reported alcohol dependence (12% for men vs. 6% for women). In multivariate analyses, hazardous drinking was independently associated with age, male gender, hypnotic consumption, psychiatric follow-up, mourning, parents divorce, exposure to sexual and physical assault. Alcohol dependence was associated with male gender, tobacco and cannabis consumption, and sexual and physical assault. Second year was reported as the year at higher risk for increased alcohol consumption vs. decreased risk in first and fourth year. Hazardous drinking identified in one third of medical students is associated with hypnotic consumption and some psychological factors suggesting self-medication behavior that could be targeted by psychological interventions.