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Induced Genetic Variations in Fruit Trees Using New Breeding Tools: Food Security and Climate Resilience.

Authors
  • Sattar, Muhammad Naeem1
  • Iqbal, Zafar1
  • Al-Khayri, Jameel M2
  • Jain, S Mohan3
  • 1 Central Laboratories, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 2 Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 3 Department of Agricultural Sciences, PL-27, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. , (Finland)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Plants
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jul 01, 2021
Volume
10
Issue
7
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/plants10071347
PMID: 34371550
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Fruit trees provide essential nutrients to humans by contributing to major agricultural outputs and economic growth globally. However, major constraints to sustainable agricultural productivity are the uncontrolled proliferation of the population, and biotic and abiotic stresses. Tree mutation breeding has been substantially improved using different physical and chemical mutagens. Nonetheless, tree plant breeding has certain crucial bottlenecks including a long life cycle, ploidy level, occurrence of sequence polymorphisms, nature of parthenocarpic fruit development and linkage. Genetic engineering of trees has focused on boosting quality traits such as productivity, wood quality, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent technological advances in genome editing provide a unique opportunity for the genetic improvement of woody plants. This review examines application of the CRISPR-Cas system to reduce disease susceptibility, alter plant architecture, enhance fruit quality, and improve yields. Examples are discussed of the contemporary CRISPR-Cas system to engineer easily scorable PDS genes, modify lignin, and to alter the flowering onset, fertility, tree architecture and certain biotic stresses.

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