BackgroundPoor hand hygiene compliance is one in all the leading contributory factors to healthcare-associated infections. This is an important source of complications across the continuum of care and poses a serious threat to people admitted to hospitals. However, the magnitude and associated factors of hand hygiene compliance in public primary hospitals were not well investigated in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess hand hygiene compliance and associated factors among health care providers in Central Gondar Zone public primary hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia.MethodsAn Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2019 among health care providers. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and observational checklists. Using Epi Info 3.1, data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. A p-value less than 0.05 with 95% confidence interval was used to declare statistical significance.ResultsOf 335 study participants, 50 (14.9%), had good hand hygiene compliance. Training on hand hygiene (AOR = 8.07, 95%CI: 2.91, 22.39), availability of adequate soap and water for hand hygiene (AOR = 5.10, 95%CI: 1.93, 13.52), availability of alcohol-based hand rub (AOR = 3.23, 95%CI: 1.32, 7.92), knowledge about hand hygiene (AOR = 6.74, 95%CI: 2.96, 15.34) and attitude towards hand hygiene (AOR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.04, 4.46) were factors associated with hand hygiene compliance.ConclusionThe overall level of hand hygiene compliance among health care providers was poor. Training, availability of adequate soap and water, availability of alcohol-based hand rub, knowledge on hand hygiene, and attitude of health care providers were significantly associated with hand hygiene compliance.