BackgroundMany microRNAs (miRNAs) are differentially expressed in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa and in gastric cancer tissue.AimWe aimed to compare the effect of H. pylori eradication on gastric mucosal miRNAs in subjects in a high-risk group for gastric cancer compared to controls.MethodsPatients with a recent history of endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer and sex- and age-matched non-cancer controls were enrolled. The expression of 21 miRNAs was examined using gastric mucosal biopsy specimens and microdissected gastric glands from the lesser and greater curvatures of the gastric corpus both before and one year after H. pylori eradication.ResultsTwenty patients and 14 controls were enrolled. The expression of oncogenic miRNAs (miR-17/92 and the miR-106b-93-25 cluster, miR-21, miR-194, and miR-196) was significantly higher in the gastric mucosa of the cancer group than in the controls. H. pylori eradication resulted in a significant fall in the expression of oncogenic miRNAs only in the controls, whereas miR-223 expression was decreased and let-7d expression was increased in both groups. miR-196 was expressed only in intestinal metaplastic glands. The expression of oncogenic miRNAs was significantly higher in the intestinal metaplastic glands than in the non-intestinal metaplastic glands irrespective of H. pylori eradication. In neither group did H. pylori eradication significantly change any miRNA expression in the intestinal metaplastic glands.ConclusionDysregulation of specific miRNAs is present in H. pylori-induced corpus gastritis. H. pylori eradication improved miRNA dysregulation, but not in intestinal metaplastic glands or in the gastric mucosa of patients in a high-risk group for gastric cancer.