Recent progress in cancer research revealed that gut hormones have the activity to regulate the cellular growth of cancer cells. Gastrin, cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal peptide were demonstrated to stimulate the growth of gastric cancer cells, pancreatic cancer cells and colon cancer cells, respectively. Accordingly, it is possible to assume that these gut hormones may play an important role in the progression of these cancers. Further studies will be required to clarify the role of gut hormones as physiological growth factors in gastrointestinal tissues. The other aspect of gut hormones related with cellular growth is their role as autocrine growth factors. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is classified as a gut hormone with the structural similarity with amphibian bombesin. Several reported findings indicate that GRP functions as an autocrine growth factor for human small cell lung carcinoma; a monoclonal antibody for GRP is now applied for the therapy of this cancer. It is important to find out other gut hormones functioning as autocrine growth factors.