The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem of bacteria, fungi, and viruses that acts as a critical regulator in microbial, metabolic, and immune responses in the host organism. Imbalances in the gut microbiota, termed "dysbiosis," often induce aberrant immune responses, which in turn disrupt the local and systemic homeostasis of the host. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of gut microbiota in intestinal diseases, and more recently, in age-related central nervous systems diseases, for example, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. It is now generally recognized that gut microbiota significantly influences host behaviors and modulates the interaction between microbiota, gut, and brain, via the "microbiota-gut-brain axis." Several approaches have been utilized to reduce age-related dysbiosis in experimental models and in clinical studies. These include strategies to manipulate the microbiome via fecal microbiota transplantation, administration of prebiotics and probiotics, and dietary interventions. In this review, we explore both clinical and preclinical therapies for treating age-related dysbiosis. Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.